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BEGLA- 138- Reading and speaking skills- Assignment Solve || ( ASSIGNMENT July 2023–January 2024 ) BAG- Assignment Solution

Answer all questions.

Q1. Nearly nine years ago, on a warm autumn evening in 1945, I was driving over the 
mountains of Southern Japan to the city of Nagasaki. I thought I was still in open 
country when all at once I realized that I was already crossing what had been the city. 
The shadows which flickered past me in the dusk were not rocks and trees: they were 
crushed buildings; the bare and skewed ribs of factories, and two crumpled gasometers.
The scale of the damage of Nagasaki drained the blood from my heart then, and does so 
now when I speak of it. For three miles my road lay through a desert which man had 
made in a second. Now, nine years later, the hydrogen bomb is ready to dwarf this scale, 
and to turn each mile of destruction into ten miles. And citizens and scientists share at 
one another and ask: 'How did we blunder into this nightmare?
I put this first as a question of history, because the history of this is known to few 
people. The fission of uranium was discovered by two German scientists a year before 
the war. Within a few months, it was reported that Germany had forbidden the export of 
uranium from the mines of Czechoslovakia which she had just annexed. Scientists on 
the Continent, in England and America, asked themselves whether the secret weapon on 
which the Germans were said to be working was an atomic bomb. If the fission of 
uranium could be used explosively (and this already seemed possible in 1939) it might 
in theory make an explosion a million times larger than hitherto. The monopoly of such 
an atomic bomb would give Hitler instant victory, and make him master of Europe and 
the world. The scientists knew the scale of what they feared very well: they feared first 
desolation and then slavery. With heavy hearts, they told Albert Einstein what they 
knew of atomic fission. Einstein had been a pacifist all his life, and he did not easily put 
his conscience on one side. But it seemed clear to him that no scientist was free to keep 
this knowledge to himself. He felt that no one could decide whether a nation should or 
should not use atomic bombs, except the nation itself; the choice must be offered to the 
nation, and made by those whom the nation has elected to act for it. On August 2, 1939, 
a month before Hitler invaded Poland, Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt to tell him 
that he thought an atomic bomb might be made, and he feared that the Germans were 
trying to make one.

This is how it came about that, later in the war, scientists worked together in England, in  
Canada and America, to make the atomic bomb. They hated war no less than the layman 
does- no less than the soldier does; they, too, had wrestled with their consciences; and 
they had decided that their duty was to let the nation use their skill, just as it uses the  
skill of the solider or the expert in camouflage. The atomic scientists believed that they

were in a race against Germany whose outcome might decide, the war even in its last 
weeks. We know now that the race was almost a walk-over. The Germans were indeed 
trying to make an atomic explosion, and they thought that they were ahead of the allies. 
But by our standards, what they had done was pitiful; they had not made a pile that 
worked, and they believed that the fast chain reaction of an atomic bomb was 
impossible. The Nazis had made fundamental science a poor relation, and put it under 
second rate party men with splendid titles. And more deeply, the Nazis had sapped the 
pith and power of research, the quizzical eye and questioning mind, the urge to find the 
facts for oneself. There were not enough unconventional ideas in the German atomic 
projects, and when the younger men did put up some, their leaders always knew better.

Answer the following questions based on your reading of the passage 

1. What had drained the blood from the heart of the author ?

The author's heart was drained of blood when he drove through Nagasaki nine years after it had been devastated by an atomic bomb. The scale of destruction and the sight of the ruined city deeply affected him.

2. Describe the circumstances leading to the making of atom bomb.

The circumstances leading to the making of the atomic bomb were rooted in the discovery of uranium fission by German scientists a year before World War II. There were concerns that Germany might use this knowledge to create an atomic bomb, potentially giving Hitler an insurmountable advantage. Albert Einstein, among others, felt that the responsibility to develop the atomic bomb lay with the Allied nations to prevent it from falling into the wrong hands. This led to collaborative efforts among scientists in England, Canada, and America to develop the atomic bomb.

3. When was the Hydrogen bomb ready for use ?

The passage does not specify when the hydrogen bomb was ready for use. It mentions the potential destructive power of the hydrogen bomb, but it doesn't provide a specific timeline for its development or deployment.

4. What, according to the author, was the main reason of the failure of the German scientists ?

According to the author, the main reason for the failure of German scientists in developing an atomic bomb was their poor organization and management. The Nazis had put second-rate party officials in charge of scientific projects and had not fostered the spirit of research, innovation, and independent thinking. As a result, the German atomic efforts lacked the necessary expertise and unconventional ideas.

5. What do you learn from the passage about Albert Einstein ?
The passage mentions that Albert Einstein was initially a pacifist but came to believe that no scientist should keep the knowledge of atomic fission to themselves. He felt that the decision on whether to use atomic bombs should be made by the nation itself and its elected leaders. As a result, he wrote a letter to President Roosevelt in August 1939, informing him of the possibility of creating an atomic bomb and expressing concerns that the Germans might be working on one. This suggests that Einstein was willing to set aside his pacifist beliefs for the greater good and national security.

Q 2. Read the following excerpt on the topic Smoking Kills. These lines are written in Persuasive style. 
Smoking is injurious to health. It not only kills you but destroys the lives of your loved 
ones as well. Increase in the number of deaths due to lung cancer which is a result of 
smoking habit; has taken away so many people away from the ones who love them. It 
leaves a child fatherless and a partner without a support in this life.
Now, attempt to write an argumentative paragraph on the same topic.


While it is widely acknowledged that smoking is detrimental to health and leads to numerous deaths, it's essential to delve deeper into the argument against it. Smoking doesn't just harm individuals; it also places a significant burden on society as a whole. The healthcare costs associated with treating smoking-related diseases are astronomical, and these expenses are often borne by taxpayers and insurance premiums. Furthermore, the tobacco industry profits from this addiction, reaping huge financial benefits while individuals suffer the consequences. Some argue that smoking is a personal choice, but when it results in increased healthcare costs and economic strain on families and society, it becomes a matter of public concern. Therefore, it is not only about the individual's health but also about the broader societal and economic implications that make smoking a contentious issue deserving of stringent regulation and anti-smoking campaigns.

3a. How is communication disrupted when we choose an inferior medium? Exemplify with an instance from your own life.

Communication is disrupted when we choose an inferior medium because the medium may not effectively convey the intended message, leading to misunderstandings or misinterpretations. An instance from my own life is when I attempted to discuss a complex project with a colleague solely through text messages. The lack of face-to-face interaction and the absence of visual aids made it challenging to convey all the necessary details and nuances. As a result, my colleague had difficulty grasping the scope of the project, leading to confusion and delays.

3b. How can we ensure the conciseness of our messages while communicating? Explain with at least two examples. 

o ensure the conciseness of our messages while communicating, we can follow these two examples:
i. ( Email Subject Lines: ) When sending professional emails, a clear and concise subject line can convey the main point or purpose of the message. For instance, instead of a vague subject like "Meeting," a concise subject like "Meeting Agenda for 9/30" clearly communicates the message's focus.

ii. ( Bullet Points: ) In written communication, particularly reports or presentations, using bullet points can make information more concise and easier to digest. For example, in a project update, listing key accomplishments, challenges, and next steps in bullet points allows the reader to quickly grasp essential information without sifting through lengthy paragraphs.

4a. What is information overload? How does it affect communication ?

Information overload refers to the overwhelming amount of information available to individuals, often through various media and sources, to the point where it becomes challenging to process and make meaningful decisions. Information overload can affect communication by causing individuals to feel overwhelmed and distracted. They may struggle to prioritize information, leading to missed messages or the inability to focus on critical details. This can result in miscommunication or incomplete understanding of messages.

4b. Consider the following domains: 

Playground, College canteen, College auditorium, Metro station Lecture hall, Father's 
office, Multiplex, Police station, Hospital, Kitchen, Court room, Principal's office.
Classify them into formal and informal categories.

Classification of the given domains into formal and informal categories:

( Formal: )

1. College auditorium
2. Father's office
3. Police station
4. Courtroom
5. Principal's office

( Informal: )

1. Playground
2. College canteen
3. Metro station
4. Lecture hall (can vary based on context)
5. Multiplex
6. Hospital
7. Kitchen

The classification is based on the typical nature of interactions and the level of formality associated with each location. Locations like college auditorium, father's office, police station, courtroom, and principal's office are typically formal settings where structured and official communication takes place. Informal settings, on the other hand, are characterized by more relaxed and casual communication, often involving personal or social interactions.

Q 5a. Consider the following sentences; 

  i. The plan to evacuate the area won't work out as there aren't enough vehicles to drop everyone off at the safe zone.
  ii. Rohit went ballistic after his brother cocked up his plan to attend the long-awaited event.
  iii. I want this cleaned immediately.
  iv. I penalized some of the employees for being always late.

Which of the above can be used in a formal conversation? Revise the ones which you feel cannot be used in a formal conversation.


In a formal conversation, it's essential to use language that is polite and professional. Among the sentences you provided:

i. "The plan to evacuate the area won't work out as there aren't enough vehicles to drop everyone off at the safe zone."

This sentence can be used in a formal conversation as it is clear, concise, and does not contain any informal or colloquial language.

ii. "Rohit went ballistic after his brother cocked up his plan to attend the long-awaited event."

This sentence contains informal and colloquial language ("went ballistic" and "cocked up") and is not suitable for a formal conversation. It should be revised to remove the informal expressions. For example: "Rohit became very upset when his brother disrupted his plan to attend the long-awaited event."

iii. "I want this cleaned immediately."

This sentence can be used in a formal conversation. It is direct and to the point without any informal language.

iv. "I penalized some of the employees for being always late."

This sentence can be used in a formal conversation as it conveys a professional action without using informal language.

sentence ii should be revised for formal conversation, while the others are suitable as they are.

5b. With respect to language and delivery in a formal conversation, what are the blunders that we need to avoid as speakers ?       

In a formal conversation, speakers should strive to maintain a high level of professionalism and avoid common language and delivery blunders. Here are some key blunders to avoid:

1. Informal Language: Using slang, colloquialisms, or overly casual language is a major blunder in a formal conversation. It can make you appear unprofessional and undermine the seriousness of the discussion.
2. Filler Words: Excessive use of filler words such as "um," "uh," "like," and "you know" can make you appear uncertain or unprepared. Practice speaking confidently and minimize the use of these words.
3. Contractions: While contractions are common in everyday speech, in formal conversations, it's best to avoid them. Instead of "can't," use "cannot," and instead of "it's," use "it is."
4. Inappropriate Jokes or Humor: Humor is subjective, and what may be funny to one person can be offensive to another. Avoid making jokes or using humor that could be seen as offensive, especially in professional settings.
5. Overly Complex Vocabulary: While it's important to sound knowledgeable, using overly complex or jargon-filled vocabulary can alienate your audience. Use clear and straightforward language to ensure your message is understood.
6. Talking Too Fast or Too Slow: An inappropriate pace of speech can hinder communication. Speaking too quickly can make you difficult to understand, while speaking too slowly can be perceived as condescending. Find a balanced pace.
7. Lack of Eye Contact: Failing to maintain eye contact can make you appear disinterested or untrustworthy. In a formal conversation, establish and maintain appropriate eye contact to convey engagement and sincerity.
8. Interrupting Others: Interrupting someone while they are speaking is rude and disrupts the flow of conversation. Practice active listening and wait for your turn to speak.
9. Overuse of Filler Phrases: Overusing phrases like "to be honest," "basically," or "literally" can dilute the impact of your words and make you sound less confident. Use them sparingly, if at all.
10. Failure to Address Others Respectfully: Use appropriate titles and forms of address (e.g., Mr., Mrs., Dr.) when addressing individuals in a formal conversation. Show respect by using polite language and gestures.
11. Excessive Self-Promotion: While it's important to convey your qualifications and expertise, excessive self-promotion can come across as arrogant. Strike a balance between showcasing your skills and listening to others.
12. Lack of Preparation: Failing to prepare for a formal conversation can lead to stumbling, incoherent responses, or forgetting important points. Always be well-prepared and organized.

By avoiding these blunders and practicing effective communication skills, you can convey professionalism and competence in formal conversations.

Q 6.   Pair up with your best friend in your batch or in your locality. Let your friend assume the
role of the Senior Manager of an esteemed bank in which you are an employee. You have 
been recently promoted to a managerial position due to your consistent performance. 
You are happy yet anxious about the new responsibility. Engage in a formal conversation 
in English with your friend, who as a Senior Manager is trying to reassure you that you 
will be doing well in the new role. Prepare a series of formal conversation between 
your friend and you. 


Here's a series of formal conversations between you and your friend, who is the Senior Manager of the esteemed bank, offering reassurance about your new managerial role:

Conversation 1: Setting the Tone

Friend (Senior Manager): Good afternoon. I understand you've been feeling a bit anxious about your new role. I wanted to have a chat to provide some reassurance.

You: Good afternoon. Yes, I'm excited about the promotion, but I can't help feeling a bit overwhelmed by the new responsibilities.

Friend (Senior Manager): It's completely normal to feel that way, especially when you're stepping into a managerial position. You've earned this promotion through your consistent performance, and I have every confidence in your abilities.

Conversation 2: Discussing the Role

You: Thank you for your confidence in me. I've been going over the new responsibilities, and it seems like a lot to handle.

Friend (Senior Manager): I understand it might seem that way at first, but remember, you're not alone in this. We have a strong support system in place, and you can always reach out to me or your colleagues for guidance.

You: That's reassuring to hear. I want to make a positive impact in my new role.

Conversation 3: Dealing with Challenges

Friend (Senior Manager): You'll undoubtedly face challenges along the way, but that's how we grow and learn. Don't be afraid to make decisions, and if you ever encounter something particularly challenging, we can work through it together.

You: I appreciate your willingness to mentor me through this transition. It means a lot.

Conversation 4: Emphasizing Your Strengths

Friend (Senior Manager): You've been an asset to this bank for a long time, and your consistent performance is a testament to your abilities. Trust in your skills and trust in the training you've received.

You: Thank you for the vote of confidence. I'll do my best to live up to the expectations.

Conversation 5: Maintaining Work-Life Balance

You: One thing I'm concerned about is striking a balance between work and personal life. With more responsibilities, I'm worried about the increased workload.

Friend (Senior Manager): That's a valid concern. Remember that maintaining a work-life balance is essential for your well-being and productivity. Delegate when possible and don't hesitate to discuss workload management with me if needed.

You: I will definitely keep that in mind. Thanks for the advice.

Conversation 6: Wrapping Up

Friend (Senior Manager): You're going to do great in this new role, and I'm here to support you every step of the way. Just remember to stay confident, be open to learning, and don't hesitate to reach out whenever you need assistance.

You: Thank you for your guidance and support. I'm feeling more reassured now, and I'm eager to take on this new challenge.

Friend (Senior Manager): You're welcome. I have no doubt that you'll excel in your new managerial position. Congratulations again, and I look forward to seeing your continued success.

This series of conversations should help convey the reassurance and support your friend, the Senior Manager, offers as you transition into your new role.

Q 7 a. Explain how social context influences interpretation with at least two clear examples of informal use of English.

Social context plays a significant role in influencing the interpretation of language, particularly in informal use of English. Here are two examples that illustrate how social context can affect interpretation:

1. Sarcasm and Irony:
Social Context Example 1: Imagine a group of friends discussing plans for the weekend. One friend suggests going to the beach despite the gloomy weather forecast, saying, "Oh, sure, let's have a beach party in the rain."

 In this context, the use of sarcasm is clear. Despite the words suggesting enthusiasm, the tone and social context convey the opposite meaning. The friends understand that the speaker is not genuinely proposing a beach party in the rain but is instead expressing disapproval or skepticism about the idea.

Social Context Example 2: At a casual gathering, someone spills a drink, and another person exclaims, "Well, that's just fantastic!"

In this context, the speaker is using irony to express frustration or annoyance, even though the word "fantastic" typically denotes something positive. The social context of the drink spillage and the tone of the statement make it clear that the speaker is not celebrating the situation but rather highlighting its inconvenience.

2. Code-Switching and Informal Language:

Social Context Example 1: A group of coworkers is having lunch together in the office break room. During the conversation, they switch between their formal work language and informal language, depending on the topic.

In this context, the social setting (lunch break) allows for code-switching between formal and informal language. When discussing work-related matters, they use formal language to convey professionalism. However, when chatting about personal interests or weekend plans, they switch to informal language to create a more relaxed and friendly atmosphere.

Social Context Example 2: A teenager is talking to their friends in a casual setting. They use slang terms and abbreviations like "LOL," "BRB," and "OMG" while texting or chatting online.

 In this context, the use of informal language and internet slang is commonplace among teenagers when communicating with friends. The social context of peer interactions allows for the use of these abbreviations and informal expressions to convey emotions, humor, or excitement in a way that is understood within their social group.

In both of these examples, social context plays a pivotal role in shaping the interpretation of language. It helps people understand nuances, implied meanings, and the appropriateness of informal language use within specific social settings.

7 b. Explain how linguistic context influences interpretation with at least two clear examples of informal use of English.  

Linguistic context, which involves the words and phrases surrounding a particular expression, significantly influences the interpretation of language. Here are two examples illustrating how linguistic context can affect the interpretation of informal English:

1.Multiple Meanings of Words:

   Linguistic Context Example 1: Someone says, "She's really cool."

In this sentence, the word "cool" has multiple possible meanings in informal English. Depending on the linguistic context, it could mean that the person is describing someone as relaxed, fashionable, or impressive. Without additional context, it may be unclear which specific meaning the speaker intends.

   Linguistic Context Example 2: Imagine a conversation where someone mentions, "He's got a lot of dough."

   In this context, the word "dough" is used informally to refer to money. The linguistic context of discussing finances or wealth helps the listener interpret "dough" as slang for currency rather than a reference to baking ingredients.

2. Understanding Abbreviations and Acronyms:

   Linguistic Context Example 1: In a text message, someone receives the message "BRB."

   In this case, the abbreviation "BRB" stands for "be right back." The linguistic context of a text conversation helps the recipient understand that the sender intends to temporarily leave the conversation but will return shortly.

   Linguistic Context Example 2: In a social media post, someone writes, "LOL, that was hilarious!"

   Here, "LOL" is an acronym for "laugh out loud." The linguistic context of the post, where the person is describing something as hilarious, indicates that "LOL" is used to convey amusement or laughter.

In both of these examples, the interpretation of informal English expressions is heavily influenced by the linguistic context. The words and phrases surrounding a particular expression help clarify its meaning, disambiguate multiple possible interpretations, and enable effective communication in informal settings.

Q 8. Pair up with a good friend in your batch or in your locality. Imagine a situation in which your mother has given you the responsibility to go to the grocery store. You are busy with an incomplete assignment. Engage in an informal conversation in English with your friend, telling him or her to do the necessary on your behalf. 

An example of an informal conversation with your friend, asking them to go to the grocery store on your behalf:

You: Hey [Friend's Name], I've got this assignment that's due tomorrow, and I'm really tied up with it right now.

Friend: Oh, no problem. What can I help you with?

You: Well, my mom just handed me a grocery list, and I promised I'd get everything today, but I'm swamped with this assignment. Do you think you could do me a huge favor and go to the store for me?

Friend: Of course, I can do that for you. Just give me the list, and I'll make sure to get everything your mom needs.

You: Thanks a million, [Friend's Name]! You're a lifesaver. Here's the list. Make sure to double-check it because my mom can be quite specific sometimes.

Friend: Don't worry; I'll handle it. Anything else you need?

You: Nah, that's it. You're the best! I'll owe you one.

Friend: No problem at all, happy to help. Focus on your assignment, and I'll get the groceries done. Just hit me up if you need anything else.

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